top of page


Below the footnotes, there are numerous references to URLs. Click on the links below on your preferred electronic device and you will see the content.


James Tyler Kent (1849 - 1916) was an American physician and an important founder of homeopathic treatment. Kent's work was based on the work of Samuel Hahnemann. He discovered many new homeopathic remedies that had not yet been tried by Hahnemann.

Endnotes Bodyguard


1. Marcel Colla (Deurne, °1943) is a Belgian politician for the Flemish Socialist party sp.a. On  21 March 2021 the sp.a changed its name and is now called Vooruit [Forward].


1. Alibeu JP, Jobert J. [Aconite in homeopathic relief of post-operative pain and agitation in children]. Paediatrics. 1990;45(7-8):465-6. 

2. Frass M, Linkesch M, Banyai S, Resch G, Dielacher C, Lobl T, et al. Adjunctive homeopathic treatment in patients with severe sepsis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in an intensive care unit. 2005. Homeopathy. 2011;100(1-2):95-100.


Chapter 1: Developments in medicine 

1. A stem cell or cellula praecursoria is a cell that can change into another cell type. An embryo initially consists only of totipotent stem cells. Later, these start to specialize and form cells each of which has its own function. These specialized cells can then no longer perform any other functions, nor can they ever go back in their development to form stem cells again. If the cell function permits division, only similar or even more specialized cells will be formed.

2. Généthon is a French company that focuses on treatments for rare diseases with gene therapy.  It is funded by public money and by money raised during Téléthon, an annual television fundraising marathon in France. In Belgium, there are similar initiatives such as "De warmste week" and "Kom op tegen kanker". Téléthon was set up by two parents of children with a muscular disease.

3. Gene therapy entails the introduction of genetic material into (human) cells as part of a medical treatment. It is hoped that this genetic material can be used to cure a hereditary disease caused by a gene that does not function properly by adding a 'healthy' gene. Gene therapy may also be used in the future to add extra genes that can help to cure complex conditions such as cardiovascular disease.  Another form of gene therapy is RNA interference (RNAi), which 'silences' certain genes. Although expectations have been high for decades, no form of gene therapy is currently (2018) routinely available.

4. AveXis is a biotechnology company that develops treatments for rare neurological genetic disorders. It was founded in 2015 by Brian Kaspar based a discovery of a new method for treating spinal muscular atrophy with gene therapy.

5. Novartis is a Swiss company headquartered in Basel. It mainly produces and sells medicines. The company was formed in 1996 by the merger of Ciba-Geigy AG and Sandoz. In the Netherlands, the head office is in Amsterdam.

6. The European Commission approved the use of Zolgensma on 19 May 2020. Made famous in Belgium by baby Pia, the medicine could previously not be administered to patients in Belgium because it had not yet been approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). SMA Belgium, a partnership between Spierziekten Vlaanderen and the Belgian Society for Neuromuscular Diseases, is now waiting for approval from the Belgian government. Zolgensma, the well-known drug from Avexis (subsidiary of Novartis) should in principle soon be administrable in Belgium.  

According to SMA Belgium, however, it may still take some time before the drug is available in Belgium. "It is a very expensive drug, probably the most expensive drug currently on the market," explains Yasemin Erbas, SMA diagnostics manager. 

"There are also many practical arrangements that need to be made for the drug. In America, it is administered to children up to the age of two. What the inclusion criteria will be in Belgium remains to be seen."

SMA Belgium hopes that the medicine will be introduced as widely as possible. It usually takes a year after European approval before medicines are also available in Belgium. 


This is too long, according to SMA Belgium. "Since we do not know what the inclusion criteria will be, there is a chance that many young children who need the medicine now will be too old when it is actually available." 

SMA Belgium stresses that quick action from the government is important so that as few children as possible are left out in the long run

7. A report by the Belgian Monitoring Committee shows that, if policy remains unchanged, expenditure on medicines will increase by 30%. The Court of Audit has calculated that medicines paid for via what are known as  'Article 81 contracts' account for no less than 29.07% of the expenditure on medicines. In 2016, this figure was still only 18.55%. These contracts - at least 118 in the meantime - have often been questioned. The fear of the sponsors of the bill is that these contracts are being overused and no longer as originally intended, namely as exceptions. 

Belgian Members of Parliament have not been able to find out many details about them up to now because they are confidential. The sponsors of the bill therefore want to change this. They want Parliament to task e Court of Audit with looking into a contract, as soon as the Court fears that something is not quite right from a procedural and budgetary point of view. There were fears that this legislation might relegate our country in the back row when it comes to access to innovative medicines. An important proviso is therefore that the supervision would apply only to future contracts. Originally, the Court of Audit could also look at existing contracts. This was consequently rejected. In the end, the bill received a unanimous green light. The plenary chamber will soon have to examine the legislative text.  

8. The human microbiome is the aggregate of all microbiotas found on or in human tissues and bioliquids, together with the corresponding anatomical sites in which they are found.

9. Dysbiosis refers to microbial imbalance on or in the body. In the intestines, dysbiosis causes a leaking gut syndrome. A leaking gut is a condition where tiny holes form in the intestinal wall because the lining of the intestine is inflamed. The good intestinal bacteria can then no longer adhere well and the waste products produced in your intestines can penetrate the intestinal wall and get into the bloodstream. Important nutrients are then less well absorbed by the body, which further affects the entire health and immune system. This can lead to all sorts of problems and complaints, such as inflammatory and allergic reactions, mood disorders and hormonal problems.

10. A neurotransmitter is a signal substance that transfers nerve impulses in synapses between nerve cells ("neurons") in the nervous system or transfers impulses from motor nerve cells to muscle cells or from nerve receptors to sensory nerve cells.

11. Glutamate is the acidic residue of the amino acid glutamic acid. It is one of the most important neurotransmitters in the nervous system and is present in excess mainly in the cerebral cortex. Glutamate has a stimulating effect on other nerve cells.

12. GABA or Gamma-Aminobutyric acid is a γ-amino acid that acts as a neurotransmitter in the human body. In its pure state it is a white crystalline powder readily soluble in water. It is a non-proteinogenic amino acid, which implies that it is not used to build proteins.

​13. Article in the Belgian Dutch-language newspapers De Morgen of 24 August 2019 "De kakpil is volop in ontwikkeling" [The poop pill is in full development] and De Gazet van Antwerpen of 31 August 2019 "De pot op met darmproblemen" [The pot is full of intestinal problems] about Dr Danny De Looze's book "Lactose, Gluten and Co," publisher Borgerhoff & Lamberigts.  

14. Flemish Intestinal Flora Project: this ambitious project is trying, together with thousands of Flemish volunteers, to find out more about the role that intestinal bacteria play in health. Stool samples from more than 5,000 volunteers were collected for this purpose.  This has never been done on such a scale worldwide. Previous studies have shown a relationship between the composition of the intestinal flora and, e.g., obesity or all kinds of disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease and diabetes. Such results naturally make one dream of the possibility of remedying disorders or alleviating their symptoms through interventions on the intestinal flora. This intestinal flora project hopes to take steps towards unravelling the relationship between an individual and his or her intestinal flora.

15. Two British scientists pointed out the unwanted effects of stool transplants in an opinion piece in the medical journal "The British Medical Journal" already back in October 2015.

16. Edward Bach was an English doctor, bacteriologist, homeopath and herbalist. He worked at the London University Hospital where he developed several vaccines. At the London Homeopathic Hospital, he came into contact with the work of Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy.  Bach eventually left London and 'orthodox medicine' behind and headed for the countryside in search of 'natural remedies'. He spent the years from 1928 to 1936 searching for flowers with medicinal properties. This became the basis for the Bach Flower Therapy that is still used today.

17. The Royal London Hospital for Integrated Medicine is a specialist hospital for alternative medicine in London, and part of the University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. It is the largest provider of complementary medicine in the public sector in Europe.


Chapter 2: Dominant consensus. 

1 RCT:

2. EBM:

3. In the philosophy of science, a paradigm refers to the system of models and theories that form the framework of thought within a scientific discipline to analyse and describe reality. Long established paradigms are often no longer consciously experienced.

4. René Descartes:é_Descartes

5. Cox-2 antagonists:

6. Consensus:

7.a: “De Supersamenwerker”, by Dirk Van Duppen and Johan Hoebeke (Epo, 2016). A book I can highly recommend. I quote from p.91. This book is so far available in Dutch only. 
7.b “De Supersamenwerker”, by Dirk Van Duppen and Johan Hoebeke (Epo, 2016). I quote from "Science wriggles out of the grip of theology" on page 297 ff. This book is so far available in Dutch only.

8a. Naomi Oreskes is an American historian of science who has been professor at the University of California - San Diego since 1998. Oreskes gained fame with an essay on science and society Beyond the Ivory Tower: The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change in Science in December 2004.

8b. David Michaels “The Triumph of Doubt”.

9. Flexner Report: is a historical report on the entire length of medical education in the United States and Canada, written by Abraham Flexner and published in 1910 under the auspices of the Carnegie Foundation.

10. A schism is a division or secession of an organization into at least two different camps.

​11. Divided legacy = schism in medical thought.

​12. Dr Lewis Thomas was an American physician, poet, etymologist, essayist, administrator, educator, policy advisor and researcher. Thomas was born in Flushing, New York and attended Princeton University and Harvard Medical School

​13. Dr Dale Console. In 1960, he warned the US Senate about the high price of many drugs with limited medicinal effect -- drugs that often do more harm than good.  He pointed to the aggressive promotion campaigns of the pharmaceutical industry.

14. Dr Michael Halberstam: It is nice to mention that in 1978 he wrote a book entitled "The Wanting of Levine" about a self-made millionaire in real estate who becomes president of the United States, thus anticipating the presidency of Donald Trump.

​15. Dr Harris Coulter: in this book he analyses the conflict between the reductionist thinking in the American Medical Association AMA) and the empirical thinking in homeopathy.

16. Dr Ian Pretyman Stevenson was a Canadian-born American psychiatrist. He worked at the University of Virginia School of Medicine for fifty years, and as of 1957 as chairman of the department of psychiatry.

17. Dr Lawrence L. Weed:

18. Dr John Henry Clarke was a prominent English classical homeopath.

​19. Dr Constantine Hering was a doctor and early pioneer of homeopathy in the United States.

20. Dr Margaret Lucy Tyler:

​21. I would like to refer the interested reader in this respect to the document “Scientific Framework of Homeopathy - Evidence Based Homeopathy” ( and to the study “Experimental neuropharmacology of Gelsemium sempervirens: Recent advances and debated issues” by Paolo Bellavite, Clara Bonafini and Marta Marzotto ( S0975947616305046). 

22. Address for the Health Council Lecture on 30 September1999 by J.P. Vandenbroucke, Dutch epidemiologist. This text is only available in Dutch but is very similar to the jubilee lecture of the Lancet one year earlier Lancet. 1998;352:2001-2006. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(98)10208-8). In subsequent article (Vandenbroucke, J.P., de Craen, AJM: Alternative medicine: a “mirror image” for scientific reasoning. Ann Intern Med. 2001;135(7):507-513) he stated the following: “The extreme challenge presented by alternative medicine is that some trials have positive findings when that is impossible; this situation leads us to reflect that the same happens in conventional medicine. We surmise that the same mechanisms that lead to positive trials in alternative medicine may lead to false-positive trials in conventional medicine” and “Where strong prior beliefs operate (for example, in alternative medicine trials or in industry-sponsored trials), we will want to maximize guarantees that scientific research has been done properly. For example, we should be especially careful to determine whether equipoise was guaranteed in the design of a trial and whether all results of all trials have been reported. The realization of the difficulties that confront medical research in this area will stimulate the development of new tools to identify which randomized trials are credible and which ones are not. Nevertheless, in the ultimate judgment, reasoning—and thus subjectivity— will remain unescapable”.

23. In the afore-cited article “Alternative medicine: a “mirror image” for scientific reasoning in conventional medicine” (JP Vandenbroucke, AJM de Craen - Annals of Internal Medicine, 2001 -, he states: “It has been said that the claims made for homeopathy “wreck the whole edifice of chemistry and physics”, that “they stand in clear opposition to conventional science” or “require a massive revision of standard chemistry and physiology”. Such statements are very unscientific, in fact. They just close the door!

24. Linde K, Clausius N, Ramirez G, et al. “Are the clinical effects of homoeopathy placebo effects? A meta-analysis of placebo-controlled trials”. Lancet. 1997;350(September 20):834-843. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(97)02293-9.

I am not claiming that homeopathy has been proven to work, but that "the evidence for homeopathy is not inferior to regular evidence." After all, you can undermine any evidence in medicine by changing the assessment criteria, and that is exactly what happened after Linde's meta-analysis.

25.  The volume of prescriptions from our members is less than percentile 10 (< P10). This means that there are 90 out of 100 doctors who prescribe a large volume of antibiotics per year. P50 is the median. 

26. Fritjof Capra is an Austrian American physicist and author of international bestsellers such as The Tao of Physics and The Turning Point

27. Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis (LMHI) was founded in 1925 in Rotterdam and represents the doctors-homeopaths in over 70 countries.

28. "Complexity theory" is the study of complex and chaotic systems and of how order, patterns and structures can emerge from them. It is the theory that processes which at first glance have a large number of independent means of action can nevertheless organize themselves spontaneously into a coherent system.

29. Epigenetics is the field of genetics that studies the influence of reversible hereditary changes in the gene function that occur without changes in the sequence of DNA in the cell nucleus. It also studies the processes that influence the development of an organism.
In other words, epigenetics studies hereditary changes to DNA that are not reflected in the nucleotide sequences. It studies chemical changes in the gene caused by the environment and the heredity of habits, particularly cultural adaptation. Genetics, on the other hand, studies the hereditary information contained in the nucleotide sequence in DNA. Nucleotides are a group of bio-organic compounds that form the building blocks for DNA and RNA (“De Supersamenwerker”, by Dirk Van Duppen en Johan Hoebeke. I quote from pages 117 and 218). 

30. In general, sequence means "succession" or "series." In biology, a sequence is the one-dimensional order of monomers in a biopolymer, for example the order of nucleotides (bio-organic compounds) in a DNA or RNA molecule, or the order of amino acids in a protein. The linear sequence is also referred to as the primary structure. Sequencing a genome refers to determining the order of nucleotides in the DNA molecules that make up the genome.

31. According to Thomas Kuhn, a paradigm shift (or revolution in science) is a development that leads to a dramatically different picture of reality. Such a development often creates a great contrast between the proponents and opponents of the new paradigm.

32. CpG island hypermethylation is an epigenetic control defect that is important for gene inactivation in cancer cells. Hypermethylation of CpG islands has been described in almost every type of tumour.

​33. Genome is the term used to describe all the genes recorded in the chromosomes of a given organism. It is a complete genetic makeup of an organism, cell or virus. Its size is usually indicated as the total number of base pairs. The human genome contains about 3 billion base pairs.

34. Craig Cameron Mello: and Andrew Fire:

35. The miasma theory was an aetiological doctrine that sought the cause of epidemics in bad air, and more specifically in the exudations of decaying matter. Swamp air itself was held responsible for malaria and other diseases were also long associated with stench. In homeopathic medicine, the miasma theory entails a kind of "staining" that is transmitted from generation to generation. 

36. Aaron Antonovsky (1923 – 1994) rejected the traditional medical model in his theories, for, in his view, it makes a dichotomy between illness and health. He saw the difference between illness and health as a gradual transition.

In addition to the references cited above, I have also drawn from "Het beste uit Homeopathisch Bekeken", an anthology from the journal of the same name. Compiled by the Belgisch-Nederlands Informatiecentrum voor Homeopathie (BNIH) [Belgo-Dutch Information Centre for Homeopathy] in 1992. ISBN: 90-801276-1-2.   


​Chapter 3: Daily homeopathic practice.  

1. Samuel Hahnemann, life and work:

2. This is a difficult sentence. I shall try to explain it. Some concepts used in this footnote such as the mention of different types of dynamics ( D1, etc.) are explained under the second basic principle. 

Normally a proving is carried out with a homeopathic remedy that has been dynamized to such an extent that no detectable concentrations of the base product remain. However, there are numerous provings and the resulting medical pictures (materia medica, see next endnote) with mother tinctures or the base product from which homeopathic dynamizations are made. There have also been provings with a homeopathic remedy in a low dilution such as D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 or D6. In such dilutions the concentrations of the base product or mother tincture are still detectable. Remedies are therefore used also in homeopathy with a perceptible concentration of the base product. Of course one must make sure that the concentration of these mother tinctures always remains below the toxic concentration. Hence the word subtoxic. So it is about actually detectable molecules. Above a D6 or 3CH dilution, these molecules are no longer detectable. In complex homeopathy, where we work with a composition of various basic products in low dilutions, we must therefore take into account the fact that the person who takes these remedies on a daily basis can develop symptoms as a result of said remedies. Some of these products are registered and form an important part of the market for homeopathic medicines.  

3. The "Materia medica" collects the accumulated knowledge about the effects of substances used in medicine. Today this knowledge is studied in the field of medicine or pharmacology. In the homeopathic materia medica, all known symptoms of a particular homeopathic remedy are listed.

4. James Tyler Kent was an American doctor and an important founder of homeopathic treatment. Kent's work was based on the work of Samuel Hahnemann. He tested many new homeopathic remedies that Hahnemann had not yet tried.

5. A monograph is a scientific treatise on a subject of limited scope, in which the subject is treated extensively.

6. The word pharmacopoeia literally means "making medicine" and refers to a kind of book containing formulas for various medicines.

​ For the videos on the production process of a homeopathic medicine, cf. refers to the URL under Links.

7. Semyon Nikolaevich Korsakov was an official of the Russian government, known as a homeopath and an inventor involved in an early version of information technology.

8. “The Production of Nosodes,” by Dr Paolo Lucentini, scientific director of OTI Omeo Tossicologici Italia S.r.l.

9. An organic compound or substance is a chemical compound containing at least one carbon atom, and usually several carbon atoms, linked together by a covalent bond to form a carbon chain.

10. Homeopathic remedies charged in the magnetic field of the south pole, north pole, moon, sun and an electric field respectively. These are homeopathic remedies belonging to the nosode group.  

11.  Jeremy Laurance writes about health issues. He claims that the damage that medicine does is underestimated and the damage it prevents is overestimated. He thinks cycling is better than many drugs. 

12. The article "Magic is acceptable", was published in the Lancet 13 March 2010 (, where he state the following: “Much orthodox medicine is not evidence based. Many antibiotics have never been tested in randomized controlled trials. Orthodox medicine is often held up as a model of how things work but it is actually far from perfect science” …” We need to know what kind of patient the disease has rather than what kind of disease the patient has.  Complementary medicine has done orthodox medicine a service by reminding doctors of the power of care”.  

13. “Hoe overleef ik”. Wegwijzer in een overvloed aan informatie. (p. 266). Peter C. Gøtzsche.
Publisher: Lemniscaat (Paperback 9789047709398; first edition: October 2018)

In addition to the references cited above, I have also drawn from "Het beste uit Homeopathisch Bekeken", an anthology from the journal of the same name. Compiled by the Belgisch-Nederlands Informatiecentrum voor Homeopathie (BNIH) [Belgo-Dutch Information Centre for Homeopathy] in 1992. ISBN: 90-801276-1-2.   


​Chapter 4: 40 Anecdotes

1. Causation, causality or the law of cause and effect refer to the factual assumption that events occur as a result of certain other events that preceded them; a cause precedes an effect.

2. “De Supersamenwerker”, by Dirk Van Duppen en Johan Hoebeke (Epo) 

3. Milos Janicek has levelled more than one critical remark at the EBM.

4. Report of clinical cases in EBM: 

5. Phosphorus:

6. Pure, anhydrous phosphoric acid is a white, crystalline solid:

7. Potassium is a silvery-white alkali metal:

8. A carbonate is a (polyatomic) anion of carbon and oxygen with the gross formula CO32- .

9. Potassium carbonate is an inorganic compound of potassium, with the gross formula K₂CO₃. The pure substance occurs as a white powder that is soluble in water to form an alkaline solution.

10. Copper:

11. Nitric acid:

12. Glycosides are a group of chemical substances that almost exclusively in plants in nature. They are composed of a sugar and a non-sugar. Glycosides often have important physiological or pharmacological effects.

13. Lead:

14. Iodine:

15. Antimony:

16. Sulphur is a yellow non-metal:

17. Antimonite:

18. Signature theory is a non-scientific theory according to which external characteristics of plants that show similarities with parts of the human body  give clues about those for which they can be used.

In homeopathic medicine we find that there are similarities between the behaviour of an animal in nature and the behaviour of the patient who needs a homeopathic remedy based on that specific animal. Characteristics of a mineral can also be found in the behaviour of the patient. 

19. Adrenaline stimulates the heart to beat stronger and faster. This in turn increases the blood pressure, while the blood vessels on the surface of the body contract to supply the heart with blood.

20. Hyoscyamus:

21. The  Reinheitsgebot [purity law] is a German regulation that originated in the Duchy of Bavaria in 1516. It is considered to be the oldest existing commodity law in the world. According to the Reinheitsgebot, beer could contain only malted barley, water and hops.

22. Calcium:

23. Glycogen is a multiple branched polymer (= an organic compound whose molecules consist of a sequence of identical or similar parts chemically linked to each other) of glucose, in which the glucose units are linked to each other on both sides via glycogenesis. Glycogen serves as an energy store in animals and fungi, similar to starch in plants.

24. Extracellular is the environment outside the cells of a plant, animal, fungus or bacterium. The term means literally “outside the cell.”

25. Red coral:

​26. Symbiosis is a form of long-term coexistence between two dissimilar organisms for mutual benefit.

27. Bacillus anthracis:

Gram staining is a method of staining bacteria to make them visible under a light microscope and as an aid to species identification. Gram staining separates bacteria into two different colouring groups called gram negative (red) or gram positive (blue purple).

29. Coffee:

30. Antimonium potassium nitrate:

31 Ipecacaunha:

32. Anacardium orientale:

33 Silicon:

34. Veratrum album:

35.  Cuttlefish are an order of molluscs belonging to the squid family. A well-known species is the common cuttlefish. Sepia is also the name of a dye extracted from this animal.

36. Grey amber:

37. Deadly nightshade:

38. Manganese:

39. 39. Oxytocin plays a role in childbirth. It causes the smooth muscle tissue of the uterus to contract during labour as a result of the stretching of the cervix.

40. The Apgar score is a test that can be used to get a quick impression of the general condition of a new-born baby.

41. Arnica montana:

42. Tarentula hispanica: and|

43. Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral and a salt of boric acid. It is white in powder form and consists of soft colourless crystals that dissolve in water.

44. An opioid or morphinomimetic is an analgesic (pain killer) that acts more or less the same way as morphine, with the analgesic effects being the main focus.

45. The Opium Act is a Dutch law dating from 1928. It replaced an earlier Opium Act from 1919, and which has been amended many times since. Since 1976 it has drawn a distinction between hard and soft drugs.

46. Side effects of Tramadol and Tradonal. 

Like all medicines, this medicine can have side effects, although not everybody experiences them. 

The most serious side effects that may occur are an allergic reaction (difficulty in breathing, wheezing, swelling of the face or throat), an anaphylactic reaction (an extreme allergic reaction leading to difficulty in breathing, change in heart rhythm, fainting, collapse or unconsciousness due to drop in blood pressure) or convulsions (seizures). If you experience any of these symptoms, stop taking Tramadol Retard immediately and seek medical help.  
Very common side effects (in more than 1 user in 10) are dizziness and nausea with or without vomiting. 
Common side effects (in fewer than 1 user in 10) include headache, drowsiness (fatigue), constipation (obstipation), dry mouth and perspiration.
Uncommon side effects (in fewer than 1 user in 100) are increased heart rate, palpitations, sudden drop in blood pressure. These side effects may occur particularly after intravenous administration and in patients with physical strain; itching, rash; vomiting, bloating or fullness.
Rare side effects (in fewer than 1 user in 1,000) are appetite change; psychological effects such as: mood change, change in activity, behaviour and perceptions, hallucinations (perceiving things that are not there), confusion, restlessness, sleep disorders and nightmares; convulsions (seizures); tingling sensation and trembling; slow heart rate, decreased blood pressure; muscle weakness; difficulty or inability to urinate; blurred vision. 

47. Worm Lizard or Amphisboena vermicularis:

48. Senecio aureus:

49. The third or tertiary stage of syphilis can occur from two to about 30 years after infection. It is characterized by nodular inflammatory lesions that may appear on the skin or in any internal organ. The symptoms depend on the organs affected.

50. Salmonella enteritidis:

51. The Enterobacteriaceae or Enterobacteria are a large family of bacteria, which include known pathogens such as Salmonella. Escherichia coli, or E. coli, also belongs to this family. Genetic research places these bacteria among the Proteobacteria, and they belong to the order of Enterobacteriales.

52. Proteobacteria are bacteria many of which are important nitrogen fixers. They can fix nitrogen from the air. There are also pathogens that belong to the proteobacteria. The name proteobacteria is derived from the Greek god Proteus, who could change his shape.

In addition to the sources quoted above and the standard works (materia medica) that have appeared in the last two centuries, I have gratefully drawn on Frans Kusse's book “Wat voor type bent u? Herken de homeopathische geneesmiddelen”. Second edition, 2000. Uitgeverij Homeovisie bv. Alkmaar. ISBN 9071669 556.


​Chapter 5: Coronavirus crisis

1. Filoviruses are a family of viruses belonging to the order of Mononegavirales. The viruses of this family are the only antisense RNA viruses of significance that affect primates. Only the Reston Ebolavirus appears to be harmless to humans. Primates, pigs and bats can be infected.

2. Retroviruses, also referred to as retroviridae and ssRNA-RT viruses, are viruses that store their genetic material in the form of RNA. Upon infection of a host cell, the genetic code stored in the viral RNA is copied to the DNA.

3. AIDS:

4. Orthomyxoviridae:

5. Hemagglutinin is a surface protein that is part of influenza viruses.  There are 16 known subtypes of haemagglutinin. The first three - H1, H2 and H3 - are found in influenza viruses that can infect humans. As for H5, its ability to infect humans is not yet known, but there are indications that it can.

6.  Neuraminidase is a surface protein (or enzyme) found on the surface of the influenza virus. Nine neuraminidase subtypes are known, many of which occur only in different types of poultry. Subtypes N1 and N2 are known to be directly linked to human epidemics. The most recent avian influenza virus outbreak has subtype N1.
7. Despite its name, the origin of this disease is most likely not in Spain. It is still not possible to establish with certainty in 2020 where the cradle of this pandemic was located. The United States, France, the United Kingdom and China, as well as other countries, are mentioned in several studies as possible countries of origin.

8. The Asian flu was an avian influenza pandemic first reported in late 1956 in Guizhou China caused by the influenza A virus H2N2. It reached Yunnan province in February 1957 and Hong Kong and Singapore in April of the same year. By June, the virus was a pandemic with infections in India, the United States and Europe.

9. The Hong Kong flu, also known as the Mao flu, was an extreme pandemic that broke out in 1968 in Hong Kong and claimed an estimated 700,000 victims. It may have broken out in mainland China before spreading to Hong Kong, but this has not been confirmed.   

10. Avian influenza or bird flu is a disease that affects (mainly gallinaceous) birds, causing flu-like symptoms, with drowsiness, watery eyes and swollen throats. The comb of the bird also discolours. Some birds die immediately after the first infection. The disease has nothing to do with the plague that occurred in Europe in the Middle Ages.

11. The Mexican flu, officially known as New Influenza A, and initially also as swine flu, is a flu virus that caused a pandemic in 2009. It to a new strain of the H1N1 swine flu virus and originated in Mexico in March 2009.  

12. The "Designer virus" or genetically modified virus is a virus that has been modified or generated using biotechnological methods and is still capable of infection. Genetic modification includes the targeted insertion, deletion, artificial synthesis or modification of nucleotide bases in viral genomes.

13. Coronaviridae form a family of enveloped, positive single-stranded RNA viruses. The viral genome of these viruses is 26,000 to 32,000 base pairs long.

14. Civet cats (Viverra) are a genus of small, slender-bodied predators found in Southeast Asia. Although they resemble mostly cats, their snout is longer and more pointed, like that of an otter or a mongoose. A civet cat (measured without its tail) can be 40 to 70 centimetres long and weigh between 1 and 5 kg.

15. German virologist Christian Drosten:

16. Georges Santayana (1863 - 1952) was a Spanish-American writer, poet and philosopher. He retained Spanish nationality throughout his life, but wrote all his works in English.

17. More than 1,200 species of bats have been described worldwide, whereby more than one in five mammal species is a bat.

18. "A Roof Window": Antwerp resident in quarantine makes nature documentary from his window. Teun De Voeght (33) managed to put together a wonderful mini-nature documentary from the rear extension of his home in the Antwerp city centre. It was given the title "A Red Window." He filmed everything from his window while he was in quarantine there for a fortnight. Get ready to be entertained for eight minutes by these beautiful images, the music of his girlfriend and the narration voice of David Attenborough....or at least he looks a lot like him! The bats that appear as soon as it gets dark are wonderful too.

David Quammen is an American science, nature and travel writer and the author of 15 books. He wrote a column called "Natural Acts" for Outside magazine for 15 years. Here is an interview about his book "Spillover: Animal Infections and the Next Human Pandemic" (2012):

20. Dr Quin “Du Traitement Homœopathique du Choléra avec notes et appendice, Paris, 1832, dedicated to Louis-Philippe Louis Philippe I, nicknamed the Citizen King, was the second and last sovereign who ruled over France with the title King of the French after the French Revolution from 1830 to 1848. This period is historically known as the July Monarchy. 

21. Dr Roth wrote an account of the treatment given by 14 homeopathic doctors in Hungary and Vienna during the cholera epidemic of 1835. The results were so amazing that the ban on the practice of homeopathy in Austria was lifted by Franz Anton of Kolowrat-Liebsteinsky, the first constitutional president of Austria.  A great overview of cholera epidemics treated with homeopathy can be found on the following website:

22. Dr William Wilde, Oscar Wilde's father, was a well-known ophthalmologist in Dublin. He was no friend of homeopathy which did not prevent him from looking objectively at the facts. As you will read further, such openness was not present during the 2020 coronavirus crisis. 

23. 23. John Snow (York, 15 March 1813 - London, 16 June 1858) was a British scientist. He was the founder of the current sciences of epidemiology and public health. Snow discovered that the cholera epidemic of 1854 in London was caused by contaminated water from the water pump on Broad Street.

24. Dr McCann.  Epidemics and Homeopathy Through History:

25. When the first highly suspicious cases of cholera broke out in 1832, Dr John Stearns, one of the leading physicians in New York at the time, reported this to the mayor and begged him to declare an epidemic. The mayor, however, considered this unnecessary as he did not find the reported cases exceptional ("The Cholera Years. The United States in 1832, 1849 and 1866" by Charles E. Rosenberg). Where have we heard this before? Think of how China hushed up the severity of the epidemic in Huan for weeks at the end of 2019. Doctors who expressed concern were even gagged.  

26. Dr Swartout:  “Cholera in Detroit. A History” van Richard Adler.  

27. Dr Grimmer (1874-1967) is considered one of the greatest homeopaths in the history homeopathic medicine. He was a direct pupil of James Tyler Kent (see chapter 2), the man who wrote the Directory.

28. Dr Gustavo Bracho (Cuban leptospirosis study, results and cost benefit potential: ).

29. E-mail of 15 March 2020 to Belgian virologist:   

Dear colleague, 

I know you are very busy and probably have to answer hundreds of emails a day. Nevertheless, I hope you will take the time to read further.  

You and I became doctors with the ideal of helping people in need of health care. 

You became a virologist; I became a general practitioner. This year marks 40 years in an independent general practice.  

This is a piece of common background but from now on our paths diverge. 

I practice homeopathic medicine alongside conventional medicine on a daily basis. With 40 years of daily practice, I can claim a certain experience.  

I would like to inform you, with all due respect to conventional medicine, that homeopathic medicine does have remedies for viral infections.  

I am contacting you out of concern.  

I could frame my proposal with all kinds of arguments and with cases, but I am going to get straight to the point because I do not want to hold you up any longer. As a doctor with additional training in homeopathic medicine, we regard each patient as a unique individual with unique symptoms.  

My proposal is that from the moment people are admitted to the clinic with COVID-19, which means that they are seriously ill and the virus has already found its way into the lungs, a homeopathic doctor should be contacted -- only with the consent of the patient, of course. It can be suggested to them. This doctor can then note the specific symptoms of each individual patient and suggest a homeopathic remedy. Apart from the good care in the hospital, which is obviously indispensable, this remedy could then be administered in a very simple way, by melting a few grains under the tongue.  If you/your department/hospital and the patient were to go along with this scenario, then this additional treatment could be done with complete discretion. The aim is to provide people with the maximum care available at the moment (and homeopathic care is part of that), not to turn the matter into a polemic.  

I will end with where I started. You and I became doctors because of a calling -- a calling to help people. If, by offering additional homeopathic care to patients, we can prevent 2 to 3 out of 10 potential deaths, isn’t it worth a chance?  

In full respect and with friendly greetings, 

Léon Scheepers.  

KUL 1980  

General practitioner with additional training in homeopathic medicine. 

30. E-mail dated 21 March 2020: 

Dear colleague, 

I am making a second attempt.  

I could give a long speech with a lot of arguments why homeopathic medicine should be involved in this pandemic, but I will spare you all that. We are dealing with a multi-headed monster that has almost certainly mutated.  

I would like to have the opportunity to provide additional support to those who want it with homeopathic medicines. Conventional medicine has no cure for SARS-CoV-2 for the time being. That is what you are saying on TV all the time.  

Homeopathic medicine does, and has done so for two centuries. The same medicines. I will name just a few: Aconitum napellus, Baptitsia tinctoria, Bryoania alba, Eupatorium perfoliatum, Gelsemium sempervirens, Stannum metalicum and others, according to individual symptoms. As written..... if we could avoid 2 out of 10 deaths............. 

I would be delighted if I could at least get an answer from you.  

I thank you for your attention and eagerly awaiting your reply, I remain

Léon Scheepers.  

31. Mail dated 22 March 2020: 

Dear colleague, 

It's starting to look like stalking, but for how much longer? 30 new deaths and 238 people in intensive care. As a scientist.....listen to what we have to offer at least once.  The weekend would be the ideal time to put our heads together and meet.  Face to face contact can work wonders. We, too, are sincere physicians who have only one vocation and that is to heal as many people as possible. We are not the devil personified. 

I remain hopeful. 

Kind regards,

Léon Scheepers 

32. E-mail dated 09 May 2020: 

Dear colleague, 

So here I am again.  Probably to your great annoyance. If so, please accept my apologies in advance. I will therefore keep it very short (difficult though it is for me).  Please do not delete this e-mail. Be sure to read the "P.S." 

I read in yesterday's issue of De Morgen, in which you were also quoted, that there are currently no medicines against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and that you hope that they will be found in the near future, just as they have been for AIDS.  Let us be clear.... I obviously applaud this research and I too hope that you and your colleagues will find these drugs.  

But what happens in the meantime?  

What about the hospital admissions, which remain high?  What about the people who end up in intensive care?  What about the people who die? It would be a guilty omission on my part if I did not point out to you that there are, in fact, medicines against the SARS-CoV2 virus.  To know more about it, all you need is to think 'out of the box' or, in other words, to get out of your 'comfort zone'.  I am always willing to explain our options in terms of treatment. My experiences so far with COVID-19 patients (PCR positive / PCR negative but SARS-CoV2 IgG positive / not tested but very suspicious / not tested but suspicious) are well documented.  People around me call me an optimist and my optimism make me insist that the interest of the patient should prevail, not only the interest of science. 

Kind regards,

Léon Scheepers.  

I have tested positive for SARS-CoV2 antibodies myself. However, I have had no symptoms at all. You could say that I have been through covid-19 without any symptoms. I will be 65 years old on 2 August. I am not taking any medication. I don't know if I could be an interesting subject of study for you but I am always willing to contribute to the progress of science. Why am I writing this? Because patient n°1 in Belgium apparently did not develop antibodies and this is attributed to the fact that he also had no symptoms of COVID-19 (at least that is how I read it in yesterday's article in De Morgen). So, I have not had any symptoms either but I have had antibodies. If you are interested in my blood..... I would be happy to donate it and maybe we could get to know each other.  

33. A word sent to the association of general practitioner’s family doctor by e-mail with protocol drawn up by the Unio Homeopathica Belgica (UHB) appended; 
Dear Sir or Madam, 
I should first of all like to thank you for the commitment you have shown in representing general practitioners in this crisis.  
Second, I would like to refer to the fact that you write those forces must be combined.  

I am 100% for it. 

I have been a general practitioner for 40 years (KUL [Catholic University of Leuven] 1980) and have been an advocate of pooling forces and resources to promote all the good things that medicine has to offer throughout my career.  

There is only one medicine, and that is the medicine that puts the patient's interests first to alleviate and preferably cure the patient's suffering, and to do so without too many side effects. It is here that homeopathic medicine comes into play as part of that one medicine.  

Homeopathic medicine has proven its usefulness in epidemics several times throughout history. Even now, as additional homeopathic doctors, we can see the added value of this medicine every day during the current crisis.  

It is said that there are no medicines against viruses except chloroquine/azithromycin or some experimental concoctions. We as additional homeopathic doctors have a whole arsenal of medicines at our disposal as there are in this pandemic: Acontium napellus, Arnica montana, Bryonia alba, Gelsemium sempervirens, Stannum and many others.  

One homeopathic remedy deserves special mention, namely China officinalis, the homeopathic version of quinine, the first medicine tested by Hahnemann. Alongside Bryonia, it is a very important medicine in this crisis. I am in a position to make certain suggestions for treatment by drawing on my experiences in the field over the past two weeks.   

These guidelines are in fact very easy to apply even for someone who has no background in homeopathic medicine. Put aside all doubts and scepticism and act in the interest of the patient. You can do something for your patient who is in quarantine at home. I have extended a hand ..... it is up to you to take it.  

I thank you for your attention and awaiting your reply, I remain  

Yours faithfully, 

Léon Scheepers.  

General Practitioner with additional training in homeopathic medicine. 

​34. The Club of Rome is a private foundation set up in April 1968 by European scientists to voice their concerns about the future of the world.

35. A cytokine is a paracrine molecule that plays a role in the immune defence and the activation of certain receptors. There are different types, secreted by different types of body cells. Some are secreted only by activated cells during an immune response, others are produced continuously. The quantity of cytokines also varies: some quantities of secreted cytokines act only locally, others throughout the body. Most cytokines are called interleukins because they were originally thought to act only between white blood cells.

36. Sciensano is a Belgian public institution that published daily infection figures during the acute crisis. This organization is based on the "One Health" principle according to which human and animal health and the ecosystem are inextricably linked. Sciensano aims to decipher the mechanisms that regulate the interaction between humans, animals and the environment in order to assess, prevent and minimize threats to human health.

URL mentioned on page 229 about Typhoid

37. Bacil Calmette en Guerin (BCG) is a vaccine against tuberculosis. It uses live, weakly virulent tuberculous bacteria derived from Mycobacterium bovis culture.

38. The RadboudUMC (University Medical Centre), will investigate with the Utrecht UMC whether a vaccine against tuberculosis (BCG vaccine) in the elderly (60 and over) reduces the risk of infection with the coronavirus or the severity of symptoms if infection does occur.

39. Discontinuation of research in the promising coronavirus vaccine AstraZeneca because a subject who developed inflammation of the spinal cord. 

"The subject participating in the study in the United Kingdom was diagnosed with transverse myelitis, an inflammation that affects the spinal cord and is often caused by viral infections," the anonymous source told The New York Times. The timing of this diagnosis, and whether it was directly related to AstraZeneca's vaccine, is unclear. AstraZeneca declined to comment and did not confirm the diagnosis of transverse myelitis. "Everything is being investigated by an independent committee and it is too early to make the specific diagnosis," the company said. Europe reserved 300 million doses of the vaccine of which our country would receive 7.5 million.


Chapter 6: Colla law.

1. The Belgian Healthcare Knowledge Centre (HCKC) is a public institution established at the federal level. Its mission is to draw up study reports to assist policymakers in their decisions.

2. Founded in 1925, Liga Medicorum Homeopathica Internationalis (LMHI) represents medically trained homeopaths ( doctors and dentists) from 70 countries.  

3. The Belgian Council of State is a special advisory body and a sui generis court that is outside the judiciary but part of the judicial order, provided for under Article 160 of the Belgian Constitution.

4. Under the Colla law, the joint consultation takes place in a Joint Committee, a consultative body in which the various parties involved are represented.

5. The Belgische Rijksinstituut voor Ziekte- en Invaliditeitsverzekering (RIZIV) [Belgian National Institute for Sickness and Disability Insurance] was founded in 1963. It is a public institution for social security. The Institute consists of four core departments: the Medical Care Service the Benefits Service, the Medical Evaluation and Monitoring Service.

6. FAGG:

​7. Accreditation can be viewed as a type of quality label that physicians obtain when they undergo regular continuing education and engage in their practice according to certain quality standards, including the judicious and socially responsible use of the resources made available to them professionally. 

8. The Constitutional Court is a special court in Belgium that supervises compliance with the division of powers between the federal state, the communities and the regions, on the one hand, and respect for fundamental rights, on the other. It was established in 1980 under the name "Court of Arbitration."

9. CEN is a standardization organization founded in 1961 by the national standardization committees in the European Economic Community and the European Free Trade Association. The CEN standards are known as European Standards.

10. France:éopathie


Supervision of this text by Marilou Allen 

11. Russia:

12. Switzerland. More information on the process is posted on:

13. Canada. College website:

14. Canada. Ontario Homeopathic Medical Association (OHMA):

15. Australia:      

16. Nepal. The Bhaktapur International Homoeopathic Clinic. You can support this project:

17. New Zealand:

18. Pakistan:

19. In addition to the aforementioned sources, I have obtained information from the following sites:


Chapter 7: History 

​1. Dr Pierre Joseph De Moor;

2. Dr G.H. Jahr:

3. Semeyon Korsakov:

4. The history of homeopathy in the Russian Empire until World War I, as compared with other European countries and the USA: similarities and discrepancies.

5. Dr Herremann:

6. “An innocent deception”, placebo controls in the St. Petersburg homeopathy trial:

7. History of homeopathy in Australia:      

8. Information about history of homeopathy in other countries:
In addition to the references cited above, I have also drawn from “Het beste uit Homeopathisch Bekeken” [The Best of Homeopathic Views], an anthology from the journal of the same name. Compiled by BNIH (Belgisch-Nederlands Informatiecentrum voor Homeopathie) [Belgo-Dutch Information Centre for Homeopathy] in 1992. ISBN: 90-801276-1-2.   

Chapter 8: Why not one medicine? 

1. Peter C. Gøtzsche is a Danish physician, medical researcher and former leader of the Nordic Cochrane Centre at Rigshospitalet in Copenhagen, Denmark. He is the co-founder of the Cochrane Collaboration and has written numerous reviews for the organizationøtzsche

2. “Dodelijke medicijnen en georganiseerde misdaad” [Lethal drugs and organized crime]" p. 409. Peter C. Gøtzsche. Publisher: Lemniscaat (Paperback 9789047707349. First printing:  November 2015)

​3. “Dodelijke medicijnen en georganiseerde misdaad”, p. 409. Peter C. Gøtzsche. Uitgever: Lemniscaat (Paperback 9789047707349. First printing: No vember 2015).  Peter C. Gøtzsche himself refers here to “Relman A. “A second opinion: rescuing America’s health care. New York: Public Affairs; 2007”.

​4. Article in the Wall Street Journal:

​5.  “Veel artsen schrijven nog altijd onnodig antibiotica voor” [Many doctors still prescribe antibiotics unnecessarily] Study Testaankoop, Belgian consumer organization (July 2009).

Antibiotics are still too often prescribed unnecessarily. That is the conclusion reached by the consumer organization Test-Aankoop from its own survey of 103 doctors. Four out of ten of those doctors spontaneously prescribed antibiotics for complaints about sore throats, "a condition that does not even require such treatment."

In a similar survey in 2005, "only" 32% of doctors prescribed antibiotics spontaneously. Now the figure is 39%.In fact, when the patient expressed doubt about the prescription, the number of doctors who prescribed antibiotics rose to nearly half.  

"All this costs both the patient and the RIZIV a pretty penny," Test-Aankoop bemoans. For the 48 prescriptions for antibiotics, patients pay €198 and social security €751. The organization calls for more and continued awareness of antibiotic use.

The consumer organization also points out that the doctors prescribed "incorrectly and unnecessarily" not only antibiotics but also 184 other products. Each doctor prescribed 2.3 medications on average. "Usually these are useless, but harmless. In other cases, those drugs are inadvisable because of side effects," says Test-Aankoop.

The subjects were first declared healthy by a doctor and then went to other doctors with a complaint about a sore throat (without coughing or fever). All the doctors consulted checked the throat and asked an average of eight questions. The diagnoses ranged from nothing abnormal, to slight redness and slightly inflamed uvula, to laryngitis.

6. Internal Journal of Obesity “Infant antibiotic exposures and early-life body mass”.

7. Survey of the Independent Health Insurance Funds “Krijgen onze babys te veel geneesmiddelen?” [Are our babies getting too much medicine?] (23/08/2016).

Which medicines are our children receiving the most? Are they always indicated? The Independent Health Insurance Funds investigated the issue!

Medicines are part of our daily lives: they have provided great therapeutic advances and pushed the limits of human life expectancy. But what we are less aware of is that our babies are being fed these same medicines almost with the baby bottle! 3 out of 4 babies are administered drugs at least once a year. That's one of the most surprising results of the first edition of the KidOscope, the barometer for children's health, published by the Independent Health Insurers. But it's certainly not the most worrying finding:

  • One out of 2 babies (47%) is given antibiotics at least once a year. On average, a baby receives 3 packages of antibiotics per year, despite the fact that the number of information campaigns to reduce antibiotic use is greater than ever. This disturbing trend was also observed among the 3- to 6-year-olds. It is only after the age of 6 that the recourse to antibiotics decreases: it concerns 25% of the 6- to 18-year-olds, which is still a lot.

  • Equally striking almost 4 out of 10 babies (38%) receive bronchodilators (aerosols for of 31 days on average. The first year of life is a period with an increased risk of respiratory problems. However, it is important to underscore that those commonly prescribed drugs in infants are not indicated in simple forms of acute bronchiolitis in infants. A viral seasonal infection is often benign and generally requires no more than nasal care.

Health risks later in life

Although antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest health challenges worldwide, the number of children in Belgium on antibiotic treatment remains very high. Prescribing antibiotics is therefore still too much of an automatic reaction. Antibiotics should not be taken lightly: for example, a course of antibiotics is of no use at all  when treating viral seasonal infections. Research also shows that prescribing antibiotics too often not only promotes the development of resistant bacteria, but that misuse of antibiotics in infants also increases the risk of chronic diseases in later life, such as obesity and asthma, because it permanently affects the gut flora. It is therefore essential to continue and even increase efforts to reduce the overall consumption of antibiotics in our country. Belgians take 3 times more antibiotics than the Dutch and 2 times more than Germans.

According to the Independent Health Insurance Funds, there is also a need for guidelines on the use of antibiotics for frequently occurring childhood diseases. Only limited use should be recommended for these treatments, provided that the need therefor has been demonstrated. In June 2016, the RIZIV published an overview report on the rational use of ambulatory prescribed antibiotics for health professionals. This report lists the clinical situations in which these drugs are useful, in what dose and at what frequency.

8. The study "Decreasing antibiotic use, the gut microbiota, and asthma incidence in children: evidence from population-based and prospective cohort studies" referenced by the online medical journal is posted on

​9. Isaac Stoner:

10. SSRIs (Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor or Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors) block the reuptake of serotonin into neurons.

11. Endogenous depression can be caused by genetic and biological factors.

12. Benzodiazepines are psychotropic drugs belonging to the GABA agonists, an agent that enhances the action of the neurotransmitter y-aminobutyric acid, or GABA ( see Chapter 1 where it deals with the microbiome). They were often called minor tranquilizers in the past. In medicine, they are prescribed for their sedative and anxiolytic properties. Muscle relaxation can be both treatment goal and side effect.

13. Science philosopher Ruben Mersch studied philosophy and biology at Ghent University. By a twist of fate, he ended up in the pharmaceutical industry after graduation. He then decided to become a writer and became a columnist for the newspaper De Standaard. His first book, Oogklepdenken [Blinkered Thinking] (2012), more than 15,000 copies were sold. For this book he received the "Zesde Vijs" [Sixth Screw]: a prize awarded by the organization SKEPP (see footnote 14) for a meritorious contribution to the dissemination of objective knowledge about pseudoscience and the paranormal.

This prize is not awarded to anyone from outside the "circuit". I mention all this just to indicate that his criticism of the pharmaceutical industry really does fall under "internal criticism."

​14. The Studiekring voor de Kritische Evaluatie van Pseudowetenschap en het Paranormale  [Study Circle for the Critical Evaluation of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal] is an independent sceptical association in Belgium.

​15. “Hoe overleef ik”. "[How to Survive]. Guide through an abundance of information (p. 272 and p. 273). Peter C. Gøtzsche. Publisher: Lemniscaat (Paperback 9789047709398; first printing: October 2018)


Chapter 9: Press

1.  "Medication from the tap? Homeopathy recognized, but long reimbursed" (May 16, 2014). This article was written by Frederik Deman and Jan Blykers, master’s degree students in Medicine at the Catholic University of Leuven, following the publication of the Colla law in the Belgisch Staatsblad [Belgian Official Gazette] (see Chapter 6).

From now on, only doctors, dentists, midwives and licensed homeopaths may prescribe homeopathic remedies. The result of the royal decree approved by Minister for Public Health Laurette Onkelinx – not by chance, at the time of a dissolved parliament, because the subject has been on the table for years but met with every possible resistance. But why? Why does this recognition do more harm than good?

The Colla Law has since 1999 required us to develop a registration scheme for four non-conventional practices, of which homeopathy is one (alongside acupuncture, osteopathy and chiropractic). Until now (literally) anyone could call himself a homeopath, whatever his training or background. The recognition should curb malpractice and require proper training of every practitioner and a good thing too, thinks the bystander: you can't be against that, can you? The reactions make it clear that this decision makes no one - and certainly not the university community - happy, but a greater injustice remains miraculously unchallenged: homeopathy has been reimbursed by our health insurance companies for years.


Gaining ground through doubt l

The efficacy of homeopathy sometimes leads to a juicy discussion, but the discussion has died out long since in academic circles, after years of research and towering evidence: homeopathy does not work. No better than placebo. So the recognition does not remove quacks from the ranks of well-meaning healers; it gives unwarranted credibility to a discipline that has no right to exist. It insinuates that there is a skilful way to practice homeopathy, while science has been proclaiming the opposite for years.

The Ministry of Health, of course, expects every physician to be responsible for his or her actions and treatments and thus to prescribe only things that help patients. In this way it shifts the acceptance of non-conventional treatments in health care to the doctor, dentist and midwife. But we should not be blind to the reality: with recognition, homeopathy brings a big symbolic blow home. Academically they have lost the battle, so they can only gain ground by sowing doubt. That is what makes this recognition so problematic: it is grist to the wrong mill.

More expensive than tap water 

The big social problem however is found just downstream: in the cost. Homeopathy only works as a placebo and placebo only works if you believe in it. And it goes without saying that, in addition to an expensive name, you also need a price that is at least in line with the market. A homeopathic remedy contains as much active product as any other glass of water that comes (almost) free of charge from the tap, but if the bottle costs €70, it is easier to believe that it works. I know of few other legal ways to make money so quickly. Medicine is also the textbook example of a sector with price-inelastic demand: whatever it costs, you will pay it for your health.

We all pay along 

It defies all imagination that homeopathy is reimbursed by all Belgian health insurance schemes, sometimes even up to 75%. 

Non-conventional consultations and treatments cost our health care system tens of millions in this way. You can argue in principle for freedom of choice of therapy but using social resources to sell artificially expensive placebos is a few bridges too far. When it comes to regular drugs, we are so strict in our reimbursement that we only reimburse the price of the generic drug. A generic drug has every active ingredient and characteristic in common with the branded product. Well, if we were to apply the same logic to homeopathic remedies, and a homeopathic remedy is perfectly interchangeable with a glass of water just as a Dafalgan is interchangeable with its generic equivalent, then at most we would be allowed to reimburse the price of tap water (less than half a eurocent per litre!). The health care system is already groaning under the many cuts, and the next legislature is probably going to look for resources in that system as well. The first savings are not far off as far as we can see.


But reimbursement not only supports these treatments financially, it also gives them a hefty credibility boost. Who is the patient to question the judgment of mutual insurance companies? And who is the doctor to deny the patient a reimbursed product? We know better, our education is full of "evidence-based medicine," but in daily practice the science is hijacked and clouded by policy decisions like this.

So dear policymakers, dear mutualists: use the science instead of getting in its way. Do not encourage quackery with a recognition it does not deserve, but above all limit reimbursement to that which objectively cures people. Recognition in itself is a toe-curling mockery of biomedical science, but it is reimbursement that has the dramatic impact on our health care system. Please let the debate be about that as well.

So much for this article! 

It is clear that we should not count on these two gentlemen when it comes to defending homeopathic medicine!

I would like to say that when we talk about the fact that reimbursement has a "dramatic impact on health care", we can say that numerous cost-benefit analyses all over the world have shown the positive impact of the application of homeopathic treatment on the health insurance budget. What is particularly a thorn in the side of these sceptics is the fact that in Belgium the consultation of a doctor with additional training in homeopathic medicine is reimbursed by the RIZIV as for any doctor. For them, a doctor can apply homeopathic treatment (although they would prefer to ban homeopathic medicine completely), but outside of medicine as it is already the case in several countries (see at the end of chapter 6). Some health insurance funds in Belgium reimburse part of the cost of homeopathic medicines, whether or not as part of a supplementary insurance scheme. 


2. The Avogrado's constant is the dilution factor of a substance under which no molecule/matter can be found.

3. I refer to the website of our professional association:

4. A meta-analysis is a study that takes the results of previously conducted studies together to make a more precise statement about a particular phenomenon or theory.

5. Cochrane is an international network of individuals working in the healthcare sector or in medical research. The network aims to make the vast amount of medical research results available so that informed decisions can be made about health.

6. Dirk Van Duppen:  

7. TNF-alfa inhibitors:

NOACs have been available since 2008 as an alternative to Vitamin K antagonists (Coumarins). The advantages of the NOACs include that standard doses can be given and no coagulation monitoring is required. The higher cost can be a disadvantage, but according to some international studies this cost is even less than the cost of the Coumarins because regular check-ups need not be performed.

9. The Partij van de Arbeid van België or Parti du Travail de Belgique [Labour Party of Belgium], is a Marxist political party that aims to bring about a socialist society. The party had more than 16,000 members across the country in 2019, up from 1,400 members in 1991. Peter Mertens has been its president since 2008.

10. Galapagos is a biotechnology company dedicated to the development of new, innovative medicines.
11. “Dodelijke medicijnen en georganiseerde misdaad” [Deadly drugs and organized crime] (p. 84). Peter C. Gøtzsche. Publisher: Lemniscaat. (Paperback 9789047707349. First printing: November 2015)
12. Test acquisition and affordable treatment for COVID-19.

Medicines for the coronavirus: Europe must guard against availability and price (April 06, 2020)

Researchers around the world are currently working on vaccines and drugs that can combat the coronavirus, often also with taxpayer money. It is important that these drugs are available and affordable to everyone who needs them. Therefore, we need to set conditions for publicly funded research.


Medicines for the coronavirus: 
As we write this, Belgium has now been “locked down” for a week, as many media outlets describe it. Behind the scenes, researchers from universities, spin-offs, biotech companies and large pharmaceutical firms continue to work continuously to develop diagnostic tests, vaccines and medicines against this stubborn virus. Such efforts and investments are necessary, but now it is a matter of creating the right conditions so that investments with our tax money can also lead to affordable products. 

Europe is investing
Several member states have already released significant funds since January to support the development of diagnostic tests, treatments and vaccines. The European Commission has also already allocated millions of euros to advance research on COVID-19. Europe is distributing the funds through its usual research programmes such as Horizon 2020 and the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). 

Lack of conditions

The IMI launched a call for research projects in early March in the context of the coronavirus crisis. They will invest a total of €45 million in order to contribute to the development of medicines and diagnostic tests for COVID-19. 


This call however does not mention affordability clauses that would keep the eventual end product accessible to all who need it. Nor does it give due consideration to the risks of availability problems when entering into what are known as “exclusive licenses," where one firm provides for production on a vastly larger scale.


A "business as usual" approach costs life. 

This coronavirus crisis is a public health emergency. We cannot allow a "business as usual" approach where market dynamics dictate pricing at the expense of rapid access and where financial considerations - rather than public health – determine where and when products will be available. After all, such an approach would cost lives.

Need for conditions

We would therefore like to urge the European institutions and the various member states to set a number of conditions in current and future research and development investments so as to safeguard societal interests. More specifically, we are thinking of transparency with regard to public contributions, accessibility and affordability clauses and non-exclusive licenses. We sent them a letter about this matter as well as to 60 other organizations. 

Only such measures can guarantee that the vaccines and treatments for the coronavirus will reach those who need them and thus save many lives.

Together with Kom op tegen Kanker (Fight against cancer) and Dokters van de Wereld (Doctors of the World), we have already campaigned for conditions to be imposed when money for biomedical research is granted to the industry and research institutions such as universities. You can read more about this in our file "Affordable Medicines". The government must thus ensure that all medicines developed from research paid for with our tax money are available to all patients in the world at an affordable price. 

13. The European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC) consists of the various National Academies of Sciences of the EU Member States. The EASAC ensures a cooperation between these Academies to provide scientific advice to European policymakers.

14. “Dodelijke medicijnen en georganiseerde misdaad” [Lethal drugs and organized crime] (p. 401). Peter C. Gøtzsche. Publisher: Lemniscaat.(Paperback 9789047707349. First printing: November 2015)

15. EPI3 study: and

16. Rosanne Yente Hertzberger, author of “Het grote niets. Waarom we te veel vertrouwen hebben in de wetenschap” [The Big Nothing. Why we have too much faith in science].".

17. Details available on: temperature 



10: Chapter 10: Patients 

​1. In addition to other studies on the cost-benefit analysis of homeopathic medicine, I refer to: “An observational study of patients receiving homeopathic treatment”, M. Van Wassenhoven (Unio Homeopathica Belgica) en G. Ives (Priority Research Ltd. Sheffield Science Park, Sheffield, UK). Homeopathy (2004) 93, 3-11. 2003 The Faculty of Homeopathy. 

One country a cost-benefit study for homeopathic medicine has been conducted at the national level is Switzerland (see Chapter 6).

2. For more than 100 years, the Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM) [National Institute for Public Health and the Environment] has been committed to a healthy population in a healthy environment, with a central role in infectious disease control and in national prevention and screening programmes
To address the presence of drugs in rivers adequately, it is important to know where these substances come from. The supply of medicines from the Netherlands and abroad differs per medicine and per river. Differences in drug use can also be seen between Dutch citizens and other countries. For example, the blood pressure reducer metoprolol is mainly used in the Netherlands and less in neighbouring countries.



1. Topdokters is a Flemish television programme on VIER [Channel Four] where eight to ten doctors are followed in each of eight to nine episodes. The program by Hazel Pleysier, Annick Bongers and Charlotte Lerouge is a production of Woestijnvis. Since 2019, this program is also broadcast in the Netherlands.


1. I would like to refer to Johan Terryn's brilliant podcast “Het uur blauw” [“The Blue Hour”]. He lost his father in the middle of the coronavirus lockdown and had to say goodbye with a mouth mask, at a distance and in strictly limited company. This makes him a fellow sufferer of his conversational guests. To give words to their loss, Johan Terryn invites them to go for a walk during The Blue Hour, the hour just before dawn. To tell their story and to come to terms with it. To discover how they can start the new day when the sun rises.

Credit Commons: 

p. 89 Asarum europaeum


p. 91 Caulophyllum thalictroides

Brett Whaley


p. 93 Cina maritima

Olivier PichardДатотека:Artemisia_maritima_baie-authie_80_15072007_1.jpg


p. 96 Koper

Alchemist-hp (


p. 102 Solanum dulcamara



p.105 Lycopodium clavatum

Calle Eklund

Krzysztof Ziarnek


p. 112





Robert M. Lavinsky


p. 117

Hyoscyamus niger

Robert Mertl


p. 122




p. 127

Corallium rubrum



p. 135

Datura stramonium

Béranger SENLIS


p. 141


Sony Mavica


p. 143

Anacardium orientale

João Medeiros


p. 145



p. 148

Lycopus virginicus

H. Zell


p. 150

Lachesis mutus

Pavel Dodonov


p. 152

Veratrum album



p. 155




p. 158

Atropa belladonna

Natural England


p. 163

Arnica montana

Ralf Wimmer


p. 165

Tarentula hispanica


p. 168


Sandy/Chuck Harris


p. 174


Carlos Henrique


p. 176

Senecio aureus



p. 196



p. 211

Baptisia tinctoria

Charles Wohlers


p. 212

Daphne mezereum

Vilma Bharatan


p. 216

Gelsemium sempervirens

Brian Henderson


p. 217

Cinnamomum camphora



Apocynum cannabinum

Patrick Alexander


p. 219

Nux vomica

VanLap Hoàng

bottom of page